– the process of lowering the temperature of the material by removing heat from it. Cooling is always associated with the transfer of heat from a body with a higher temperature to a body with a lower temperature. In conditions of rapid warming, cooling systems are extremely necessary to protect human health, the safety of vaccines and food, as well as to ensure greater productivity. Unfortunately, currently used cooling methods produce a large amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which leads to environmental degradation. Environmental experts call for switching to energy-efficient and environmentally friendly cooling methods on the way to reducing emissions into the atmosphere.